El azar y la necesidad (Metatemas) | Jacques Monod | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. Ciencia y filosofía en El Azar y la ita Necesidad y Azar Parménides – Mallarmé. : El Azar Y La Necesidad (Spanish Edition) () by Jacques Monod and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible.
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Monod starts off chapter I entitled “Of Strange Objects” with a consideration of the difference between natural and artificial objects and states that “the basic premise of the scientific method Prior to folding there is no biological activity.
Monod describes as “the frontier” the work that is to be done that will enable us to understand how this instrument of intuitive preconception works. He goes on to state that he does not intend to make a thorough survey of modern biology but rather to “bring out the form of its key concepts and to point out their logical relationships with other areas of thought…it is an avowed attempt to extract the quintessence of the molecular theory of the code” Monod, xiii.
According to the in troduction the book’s title was inspired by a line attributed to Democritus, “Everything existing in the universe is the fruit of chance and necessity.
Monod admits he is more interested in animism and will therefore devote more analysis to it.
Jaime Echarri, Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. “In memoriam” – PhilPapers
He believes this understanding will enable mankind to eliminate the dualism of differentiating between the brain and the mind. He also states that the complexity of the cybernetic network in living beings is far too complex to study by the overall behavior of whole organisms.
The last general property Monod offers up as distinguishing living organisms is reproductive invariance which is the ability of a living being ndcesidad reproduce and transmit the information corresponding to their own highly ordered structure.
The author points to what he sees as the acceptance of objective science in practice but not in spirit. He talks briefly about how ideas are selected based on the performance value and the spreading power he states that ideas that explain man by assigning him a destiny spread the most.
In the last paragraph of the preface Monod explains that his essay developed from ,onod Robins Lectures that he gave in at Pomona College. The author says that this animist belief is due to a projection of man’s awareness of his own teleonomic functioning onto inanimate nature. Azar y necesidadMonod Jacques. First there must have been the formation of nucleotides and amino acids from simple carbon compounds and non-biological catalysts.
Monod joined the staff of the Pasteur Institute in Paris in and became its director in In chapter four “Microscopic Cybernetics” the author starts out by repeating the characteristic of extreme specificity of enzymes and the extreme efficiency of the chemical machinery in living organisms.
Publicar un comentario Agradeceremos aportes constructivos. When Escherica coli are grown in a medium with no galactosides the three proteins are synthesized very slowly about one molecule every five generations. There is a brief review of DNA whose structure is a helix with translational and rotational symmetry and if artificially separated the complementary strands will spontaneously reform.
The basic tenet of this book is that systems in nature with molecular biology, such as enzymatic biofeedback loops can be explained without having to invoke final causality. Next would have been the formation of the first macromolecules capable of replication probably through spontaneous base pairing. The author proposes that man should rise above his need for explanation and fear of solitude to accept the ethic of knowledge and frames this ethic as accepting both the animal and ideal in man.
With that cliffhanger of internal intellectual struggle Monod ends chapter one. Three stages which led to the emergence of the first organism are proposed.
Bonus Vita: Jacques Monod: El Azar y la necesidad!
Monod later retracts autonomous morphogenesis spontaneous structuration as a property of living beings and says instead that it should be thought of as “mechanism” leaving two essential properties of living beings: One is teleonomy which Monod defines as the characteristic of being “endowed with a purpose or project” Monod, 9. In reviewing the tertiary structure, what he calls the native shape, he talks about the non-covalent interactions which bind the amino acids and the folding that determines the molecules three-dimensional shape including the sterospecific binding site.
He briefly discuses the murky metaphysical vitalism of Henri Bergson and then discusses the scientific vitalism of Elsasser and Polanyi which contend that physical forces and chemical interactions that have been studied in non-living matter do not fully account for invariance and teleonomy and therefore other “biotonic laws” are at work in living matter.
Monod splits up organism development into four broad stages: The first is feedback inhibition. The rest of the chapter is a discussion of the principles that cell metabolism works by. He states that the source of information for the antibodies associative structure is not the antigen itself but is instead the result of many random recombinations of part of the antibody gene.
Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. “In memoriam”
The accidental random chance of these mutations and that these unpredictable mutations alone that are the source of evolution is pointed out and exemplified.
This jarring and isolating revelation places value judgments within the hands of man himself. He then points out that society is willing to accept a universal theory that is compatible with but does not foresee the particular configuration of atoms in a pebble but it is a different story when it comes to humans; “We would like to think ourselves necessary, inevitable, ordained from all eternity. To them a being made sense and was understandable only through the purpose animating the being and so if mysterious objects, such as rocks, rivers, rain, and stars, exist it must also be for a purpose mobod there are no inanimate objects to them.
Neccesidad catalysis is believed to result from the inductive and polarizing action of certain chemical groupings of the specific receptor. Since the activation energy of a covalent bond is high the reaction will have a slower speed than that of a non-covalent bond which occurs spontaneously and rapidly. In the last part of the chapter Monod criticizes “holists” who challenge the value to analytically complex systems such as living organisms and that complex systems cannot be reduced to the sum of their parts.
Various mutations such as substitutions, deletions, and inversions are listed. For this work, which has been proved generally correct for bacteria, the two men were awarded a Nobel Prize. Allosteric enzymes are necesisad under the simultaneous control of several allosteric effectors. With mild treatment protomers are separated and the oligomer protein loses function but if the initial “normal” conditions are restored the subunits will usually reassemble spontaneously.
Here the author restates that nature is objective and does not pursue an end or have a purpose ,onod he points out an apparent nfcesidad [the study of the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge] contradiction” between the teleonomic character of living organisms and the principle of objectivity. The author spends the rest of the chapter discussing linguistic and physical human evolutionary development. Next Monod makes reference to his own research and talks about the S shaped non-linear curve that is characteristic of allosteric enzymes when activity is plotted against concentration of an effector including the substrate.
Finally, it is the primary structure of proteins that we shall consult for the “secret” to those cognitive properties thanks to which, like Maxwell’s demons, they animate and build living systems” Monod The author points out that the scientific vitalist argument lacks support and that it draws its justification not from knowledge or observations but from our present day lack of knowledge. First the folding of the polypeptide sequence into globular proteins, then the association between proteins into organelles, thirdly the interactions between cells that make up tissue and organs, and lastly “coordination and differentiation of chemical activities via allosteric-type interactions” Monod, He talks about the extraordinary specificity of action that enzymes display as exemplified by their ability to not only recognize a specific geometric isomer but an optical isomer as well.
This remarkable example shows chance as the basis for one of the most precise adaptation phenomena. He then brings up and defends against a possible thermodynamic objection to reproductive invariance and points out the extreme efficiency of the teleonomic apparatus in accomplishing the preservation and reproduction of the structure.
At the start of chapter five “Molecular Ontogenesis” Monod states he will show that the process of necesiadd autonomous morphogenesis depends upon “the sterospecific recognition properties of proteins; that it is primarily a microscopic process before manifesting itself in macroscopic structures.
The author then spends some time developing the fact that the preceding sequence of amino acids had no bearing on what the next amino acid will be. He brings up statistics that show a negative correlation between intelligence and the average number of children per couple and a mpnod correlation of intelligence between spouses which concentrates them among a shrinking elite.