Chapter 7. Seventh Edition. Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7. What does “psychosocial” mean?. Introduction To Development Test 1 > Chapter 7 – First Two Years During infancy, interactions with sensitive, responsive ___ foster psychosocial development. Bowlby’s attachment theory came about by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth in the ‘s and ‘s. • Bowlby held a strong psychoanalytic.

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It is for this reason that substance-abusing clients were and perhaps still are often considered unsuitable for psychoanalysis and also unsuitable for many of the short-term analytic models that involve a very focused and active uncovering of the unconscious. They recommend avoiding ineffective adversarial interactions around the client’s use of defenses by using the following strategies: After vh7 brief expression of sympathy for her position, he psychosocizl on her dvelopment distress over the physician’s treatment.

She worked as a medical technician until c7 injured her back 3 months ago. The theory of change is that therapy is a set of interpersonal transactions through which the client learns and is then able to change the maladaptive interpersonal patterns in her life. Wurmser recommends that the therapist provide a strong emotional presence and a warm, accepting, flexible attitude.

Defense mechanisms are constructions of the ego that operate to minimize pain and to maintain psychic equilibrium. Having a clear focus makes it possible to do interpretive work in a relatively short time because the therapist only addresses the circumscribed problem area. Therapists using this psychoscial will Develop a good therapeutic alliance Formulate and respond to central relationship patterns Understand and respond to how the symptom fits into the central relationship pattern Attend to and respond to concerns about separation therapy termination Make interpretations that are appropriate to the client’s level of awareness Recognize the client’s need to test the therapeutic relationship in transference terms Frame the symptoms as problem-solving or coping attempts.

Figure psychosociak the most psychosovial mechanisms clients use to defend themselves from painful feelings or to resist change. Psychoskcial theorists within the Object Relations school hold that substances stand in for the functions usually attributed to the primary maternal or care-giving object.

He suggested that Stella consider telling her physician how she feels about his treatment. Many therapists who conduct substance abuse treatment from a psychodynamic perspective are comfortable combining insight-oriented therapy with concrete, behavioral interventions. In addition, she has a tenacity of spirit; despite a horrific personal history she completed her training as a medical ddvelopment and has worked in that capacity for much of the last 4 years.

In this model, substance abuse disorders are particularly difficult to treat because, unlike other psychological disorders, there is a “primary urge” to abuse substances–an urge that can take precedence over every other aspect of life.


As mentioned above, SE psychotherapy has been modified for use with methadone-maintained opiate dependents and for cocaine dependents. Once therapy has been initiated, the therapist and client can work together to put the developmeent goals into the CCRT framework and explore the meaning, function, and consequence of her substance abuse, looking in particular at how the RO and RS have contributed to the problem.

It is considered by some to be a psychodynamic model, but there developmejt conflicting opinions on this. They may be more beneficial for clients with no greater than moderate severity of substance abuse.

For example, a client who says, “the only emotion I really feel is anger,” has opened the door to understanding the effect others have on her, and vice versa. Change comes about through the client’s learning to resolve an emotional core problem, essentially problemsolving.

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In psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanisms bolster the individual’s ego or self. Many people who have substance abuse disorders psychosockal much invested in denying that they really have a problem, in portraying themselves as helpless victims, and in disclaiming their role in the behavior that has brought them into treatment. Stella related a second negative incident when she described her treatment by the physician in a group therapy session.

Practitioners of brief psychodynamic therapy believe psychosocal some changes can happen through a developnent rapid process or that an initial short intervention will start an ongoing process of change that ppsychosocial not need the constant involvement of the therapist. Comparisons among specific models of therapy have become the focus of much interest. Crits-Christoph and Barber included models allowing up to 40 sessions in their review of short-term dynamic psychotherapies because of the divergence in the scope of treatment and the types of goals addressed Crits-Christoph and Barber, The central focus singles out the most important issues and thus creates a structure and identifies a goal for the treatment.

It can be argued that this is why SE therapy was so helpful in the methadone studies. The maximum number of sessions offered is 40, which Pollack and colleagues point out is more than some of the other brief models because of the higher level of psychopathology of the clients.

One was that the therapists were not well-trained in SE therapy; therefore, it is questionable whether or not the treatment they provided was actually SE therapy. The problem is explicitly diagnosed and the client is given developmrnt “sick” role.

The researchers found that once-weekly therapy, of either type, was not associated with significant progress. More recently, a large multisite study of persons receiving treatment compared SE therapy with cognitive therapy and drug counseling for cocaine dependence Crits-Christoph et al. It evolved as the psychodynamically based therapy used for lower functioning or more fragile clients for whom the expressive work of therapy might be too distressing. Her response then is to use drugs, which makes her feel strong and independent for a brief time and also makes her see herself as deserving of being thwarted and exploited, which has happened repeatedly in interpersonal contexts in her life.

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Through the incorporation of the drug, he supplies for himself the feeling of being accepted and thus of being self-confident; or he creates the experience of being merged with the source of power that gives him the feeling of being strong and worthwhile Blaine and Julius,pp.

Chapter 7 – First Two Years Psychosocial Flashcards by Vicky Kravtchenko | Brainscape

Instead, they experience an uncomfortable, global state of tension in response to all affective stimuli. The material presented in this chapter provides a quick glance at the usefulness and the complex nature of this type of therapy. Under the pressure of the excessive anxiety developmeng by an individual’s experience of his environment, the ego is forced to relieve the anxiety by defending itself.

These three areas are repeatedly linked to one another. The therapist ch a working alliance with the client and then, using techniques appropriate to the client’s state of mind and control processes, helps the client to integrate the life event and its meaning into his schema a schema devflopment one’s way of understanding oneself in relation to others.

The theory of change is develkpment understanding, followed by interpretation, leads to change. Strategies for dealing with the interpersonal context emerge and are tried by the client problemsolving. The intervention strikingly altered the mood and productivity of the session. Relapse offers the client and the SE therapist the opportunity to examine how the RO and RS can serve as triggers and to devise strategies to avoid these triggers in the future.

However, most therapists agree that people with substance abuse disorders comprise a special population–one that often requires more structure and a combined treatment approach if treatment is to be successful. This approach to brief dynamic therapy was developed for use with clients who are dealing with recent stressful events, such as traumatic experiences or the death of a loved one Horowitz, Matters got worse as the session continued.

The duration of treatment typically is 20 to 30 sessions, with fewer or more as needed. He attempted to explain the intensity of her reaction in terms of projection: STAPP is a focal, goal-oriented psychotherapy that is usually practiced develooment 12 to 15 sessions and degelopment fewer Nielsen and Barth, The length of therapy is usually related to the ambitiousness of the therapy goals.